Resources for MNO

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4G LTE core network

YateUCN mixed 2G/4G core network

The YateUCN is a unique, unified core network for GSM/GPRS and LTE. It cam be used for building mixed GSM/LTE networks, upgrading GSM networks to LTE, or extending existing LTE networks.

The YateUCN unified core network

YateUCN GSM LTE single network 2015-09-09.png

YateUCN software-defined networking

NFV (network function virtualization) implements in software the functions typically performed by hardware components. SDN (software-defined networking) uses the virtualisation technology to split the control plane from the data plane.

The YateUCN 'beyond SDN approach' recognizes the usefulness of separating the user and data planes, and implements both in software. The control plane is implemented in the user space for flexibility while the user plane in the kernel space for speed.

YateUCN beyond SDN

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YateUCN LTE unified core network

The YateUCN unified core network uses commodity off-the-shelf hardware to offer operators a redundant and cost-effective solution for building or extending LTE networks.

The YateUCN unified LTE core network

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YateUCN LTE unified core network benefits

The YateUCN unified GSM/GPRS/LTE core network server implements all the components and protocols in software. It includes the MSC/VLR/SGSN/GGSN, the MME/SGW/PGW/PCRF, and the PCSCF/ISCSCF/IWF/BGW for the IMS.

The YateUCN

YateUCN unified LTE vs Huawei unified 2015-09-25.png

YateUCN commodity hardware and generic OS

YateUCN, the unified core network, is a Linux application running on commodity off-the-shelf servers. It implements the functions and protocols for both the GSM/GPRS and the LTE networks.

The YateUCN and SatSite technology

YateBTS YateUCN Tux SDMN 2015-09-21.png

YateUCN - one core for GSM and LTE networks

The YateUCN is a unique core network for GSM/GPRS and LTE. It works with the SatSite in GSM/GPRS, and with the SatSite or any other eNodeB in LTE.

In GSM/GPRS, a Base Station Controller (BSC) is not needed, and the SatSite connects directly to the YateUCN.

The YateUCN unified core network

YateUCN GSM LTE single network 2015-09-09.png

YateUCN for extending 4G LTE networks

The YateUCN integrates all the functions and protocols in LTE, and it interconnects with any existing operator setup (HSS, charging functions, and radio network).

Every hardware component in the EPC – the MME, SGW, PGW, PCRF, and PCEF – is replaced with software running on a single piece of equipment.

The YateUCN for existing networks

YateUCN extend 4G network 2015-07-20.png

YateUCN extend LTE network 2015-07-17.png

4G LTE radio access network

MAC scheduler

Sitting just above the Physical layer, the MAC Scheduler assigns bandwidth resources to user equipment and is responsible for deciding on how uplink and downlink channels are used by the eNodeB and the UEs of a cell.

An introduction to the MAC Scheduler blog post

Mac scheduler 2015-07-30.png


LTE brought forth a variety of equipment and technologies. One of these new technologies is Multiple Input Multiple Output, also known as MIMO.

MIMO allows the use of use of multiple antennas in wireless communications is one of the main reasons why LTE has such high bandwidth rates.

Definition: MIMO blog post

MIMO 2015-09-03.png


YateUCN scalable VoLTE solution

The YateUCN implements all the functions and protocols from the LTE EPC and the IMS (needed for VoLTE) in software.

The YateUCN is a simplified and scalable solution for LTE, allowing operators to easily add more YateUCN servers or separate the functionality to increase the capacity of their networks.

The YateUCN unified core network

YateUCN scalable VoLTE 2015-06-19.png

YateUCN VoLTE call flow

VoLTE call flow using the YateUCN, the SatSite, and the YateHSS/HLR.

The YateUCN unified core network

YateUCN VOLTE call 2015-07-31.png

YateUCN – Back-to-Back User Agent

For SIP signaling, YateUCN acts as a Back-to-Back User Agent server, ensuring a secure transmission of data.

The YateUCN unified core network isolates SIP and RTP call legs between handsets, eliminating the threat of a third party sending additional information through a forged SIP message via the IMS.

Increasing the security of VoLTE with YateUCN blog post

YateUCN B2BUA 2015-10-13 image3.png

4G LTE roaming

YateUCN LTE roaming

LTE roaming with the YateUCN in the Home Network. The unified core network allows roaming from 4G LTE to 2G/3G networks over SS7 agreements.

LTE roaming with the YateUCN

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YateUCN LTE roaming vs. Conventional LTE roaming

LTE roaming with the YateUCN in the Visited Network.

YateUCN LTE roaming 2015-09-29.png

4G LTE functions


The YateUCN handles SRVCC by performing an inter-MSC handover from 4G LTE to 2G GSM. Built to simultaneously be an MME/MSC and an IMS network for VoLTE, YateUCN performs SRVCC without requiring upgrades to operators' current deployments.

SRVCC made easy blog post

YateUCN SRVCC InterMSC 2015-06-23.png


CSFB hands a subscriber over from the LTE core network to the circuit-switched core network through the SGs interface during call setup. The SGs interface is added to the LTE architecture and allows mobility management and paging procedures between the MME and the MSC.

Voice in LTE – CSFB trials and tribulations

YateUCN CSFB 2015-06-25.png


The YateUCN supports IMS MESSAGE, LTE NAS tunneling and CSFB for SMS in the LTE network. Except for CSFB, all the other functions are built-in.

The YateUCN unified core network

YateUCN SMS LTE options 2015-10-20.png

Core network redundancy and load balancing

YateUCN application redundancy

The YateUCN servers provide application-level redundancy.

The YateUCN acts as a cloud, allowing multiple servers to be added to the network, all servers being equal and being able to take over traffic from a failed node.

The YateUCN redundancy

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YateUCN-YateBTS many to many relationships

All the elements of our network (YateBTS/YateENB - YateUCN - YateHSS/HLR) are connected through many to many relationships.

YateBTS/YateENB connect to a cloud of YateUCN nodes, which connect to a cloud of YateHSS/HLR. This provides load balancing and redundancy.

The SatSite

The YateUCN

Many to many.png

YateUCN horizontal scaling

YateUCN allows horizontal scaling in the core network. If a YateUCN server is added to the cluster, the new server performs the same functions and is equal to all the other servers.

The SatSite

The YateUCN

YateUCN horizontal scaling 2015-11-23.png

YateUCN load balancing in GSM

The YateUCN and the YateBTS provide load balancing in GSM networks.

Devices can connect randomly to any YateUCN in the network, and any YateUCN server can take extra-traffic from another component in case of network congestion.

The SatSite

The YateUCN

YateUCN GSM load balancing 2015-11-16.png

YateUCN redundant MSC

In a GSM network deployed with YateBTS-based SatSite base stations and YateUCN core network servers, each subscriber is randomly assigned to a YateUCN from a pool of core network servers.

Operators can increase the redundancy of the pool by simply adding additional YateUCN servers for excess capacity in case a unit malfunctions.

Handsets connected to a single SatSite can be served by multiple identical YateUCNs, while, at the same time, a single YateUCN serves multiple SatSite units.

YateUCN - the redundant MSC/VLR blog post

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YateUCN redundant core network 2015-07-15.png

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YateUCN MSC redundancy benefits

The YateUCN replaces the heavy, expensive core network equipment used in conventional networks with small, affordable, and easy-to-manage equipment.

Because it uses commodity hardware, operation and servicing can be managed remotely, with minimal external support and significantly driving operational costs down. The YateUCN provides simplicity and cost-effectiveness to building redundant mobile networks.

Rethinking redundancy: a new approach to core networks

YateUCN redundant vs conventional MSC 2015-07-16.png

YateUCN EPC cloud

A single YateUCN server combines the MME, SGW, PGW, PCEF and PCRF functions. A pool of YateUCN servers provide seamless horizontal redundancy, scalability and load balancing in the LTE core network.

YateUCN - the EPC cloud blog post

YateUCN LTE cloud 2015-11-19.png

YateHSS/HLR cluster

The YateHSS/HLR subscriber server can be configured in a cluster of equal nodes to provide load balancing and application-level redundancy.

The YateHSS/HLR cluster

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2G/2.5G GSM/GPRS core network

YateUCN unified core network

The YateUCN is a unique core network server for GSM (MSC/VLR/GMSC), GPRS (SGSN/GGSN), and LTE (MME/PGW/SGW/PCRF).

The YateUCN

YateUCN 2G 4G nodes 2015-06-18.png

YateUCN commodity hardware and generic OS

YateUCN, the unified core network, is a Linux application running on commodity off-the-shelf servers. It implements the functions and protocols for both the GSM/GPRS and the LTE networks.

The YateUCN

YateBTS YateUCN Tux SDMN 2015-09-21.png

The Hosted Core

The Hosted Core is a free service that allows YateBTS users to experiment with a fully-functional GSM/GPRS network.

YateBTS installations can be configured in NIB (Network-in-a-Box) mode and used with the Hosted Core to provide all the functions of a GSM/GPRS mobile network.

The Hosted Core

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YateUCN subscriber capacity

The YateUCN core network serves any SatSite irrespective of the geographic location. This means that the subscriber capacity in the network is determined by the YateUCN.

SatSite base stations are connected to multiple YateUCN units in the network. When a number of maximum subscribers is reached in the YateUCN, the new subscribers start to be registered to a new YateUCN, but remain connected to the same SatSite.

The SatSite

The YateUCN

YateUCN more subscribers same SatSite 2015-11-24.png

2G/2.5G GSM/GPRS radio access network

YateBTS based on Linux and Yate

The YateBTS eliminates the base station controller from 2G networks. This can be done because the YateBTS is based on Yate engine and uses a commodity operating system - Linux.

Yate allows calls to be sent directly from the YateBTS to the YateUCN, and Linux allows the BSC functions to be added to the BTS software.

The YateBTS and YateUCN technology

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YateBTS based on Yate engine

Yate is an underlying part of the software architecture of the mixed 2G/4G RAN.

It has a highly expandable architecture that provides unified management and monitoring. Both YateBTS and YateENB are software modules based on Yate.

Yate’s SDR architecture enables the LTE and the GSM modules to use the same radio hardware.

GSM and LTE: 2 technologies in 1 base station

YateBTS mixed 2G 4G technology 2015-10-06.png

SatSite unified BTS/BSC

In GSM/GPRS networks, the YateBTS implements all the functions of the base transceiver station (BTS) and the base station controller (BSC).

The YateBTS replaces the Abis interface for traffic and signalling with SIP/GTP and connects directly to the YateUCN core network.

The SatSite - unified BTS/BSC

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SatSite inside structure

The SatSite base station uses generic hardware - the SDR board bladeRF, connected over USB, and generic software.

The SatSite base station

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SON and beamforming with YateBTS

The SatSite is designed for GSM, LTE, or mixed GSM/LTE networks.

The technology behind our GSM network equipment allows techniques which are typical for LTE - like running GSM from a remote radio head, applying SON or beamforming technologies - to be applied to 2G networks.

Modernizing GSM networks - an ever difficult feat

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2G/2.5G GSM/GPRS functions

GSM handover with YateBTS

The SatSite connects directly to the core network YateUCN. In LTE, SatSite units communicate and perform handover over X2, while in GSM they communicate over SIP peering protocols, requiring minimal YateUCN interaction.

YateUCN – SatSite network functions

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YateBTS GSM MO call

YateUCN – SatSite network functions

YateBTS GSM MO call 2015-07-27.png

YateBTS GSM MT call

YateUCN – SatSite network functions

YateBTS GSM MT call 2015-07-29.png

YateUCN mobility in GSM

The SatSite is not attached to a specific YateUCN in a given area. An inter-MSC handover is needed only at the network edges.

YateUCN – SatSite network functions

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2G/2.5G GSM/GPRS roaming

YateUCN roaming in GSM

For roaming in GSM/GPRS the YateUCN uses the Camel/MAP protocol between the visited and the home networks.

GSM roaming with the YateUCN

YateUCN – SatSite network functions

YateUCN GSM roaming 2015-09-30.png

Software-defined radio

SDR vs. typical DSP

Unlike commonly used FPGA and DSP chips, software-defined radio allows a high level of flexibility in designing and managing the RAN, with network functions being upgraded or reprogrammed with a simple software change.

Because it uses SDR, the SatSite base station offers operators flexibility, cost efficiency, and easier power and capacity management.

SDR: the next big thing?

Software-defined radio in the SatSite

SatSite SDR vs DSP 2015-07-01.png

SatSite for increasing traffic needs

Built on general purpose hardware and using a non-proprietary operating system, the SatSite allows operators to build smaller cell towers, with lower costs. This allows them to deploy denser networks and reach more subscribers.

The SatSite

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SatSite for coverage configuration

The SatSite can be software-configured for up to 4-TRX to increase a site's subscriber capacity.

The SatSite coverage map

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SDR for frequency reuse in LTE

Frequency reuse in LTE allows a given area to be served by more cell towers using the same frequency. With SDR, several limitations of this technique can be eliminated, due to: lower infrastructure costs; reconfiguration and power management flexibility; multi-protocol support from one radio.

SDR for frequency reuse in LTE

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SatSite upgradability to 4G, 5G

The SatSite base station uses software-defined radio, which offers it a longer life cycle and upgradability to future protocols and technologies, like 5G.

The SatSite

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Low-power base station

SatSite working on solar power

Off to greener networks

The SatSite

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SatSite working on wind power

Off to greener networks

The SatSite

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SatSite powered alternative energy sources

The SatSite requires a low power input (65W-80W) and is ideal for installing in remote areas with unstable or even no electrical grids. Cell towers using the SatSite in either single or 3-sector configuration are a lightweight deployment for isolated or remote locations, relying only on the existing natural resources.

Off to greener networks

The SatSite

SatSite solar wind water energy 10 6 15.png

SatSite working with Tesla Powerwall batteries

Depending on the type of deployment, cell sites equipped with SatSite units have consumption levels ranging from 45 Watts to 350 Watts.

A Tesla Powerwall battery offers either 7 or 10 kWh power output, is rechargeable with aid from solar panels and can be mounted indoors and outdoors. It also has a 10 years warranty and requires no additional maintenance costs. A single 7 kWh battery is enough for running 3 SatSite units.

Off-grid technologies for sustainable mobile network deployments

The SatSite

SatSite Tesla batteries 8 6 15.png

GSM power efficiency

GSM's low bandwidth requirement and the use of GMSK modulation make it a power-efficient technology.

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SatSite IP-based backhaul vs. Microwave

The SatSite GSM/GPRS backhaul is offered over any IP connectivity: IP radio, microwave, VSAT, fiber, or 3G/UMTS.

The SatSite IP-based backhaul

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SatSite GTP backhaul

The SatSite and the YateUCN communicate over GTP to reduce backhaul load in low-density areas.

The SatSite IP-based backhaul

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SatSite GTP over Abis benefits

SatSite uses GTP instead of Abis over IP to optimally serve 2.5G/4G networks bandwidth needs.

The SatSite IP-based backhaul

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Subscriber management

YateHSS/HLR subscriber server for GSM, UMTS, LTE networks

The YateHSS/HLR manages subscribers for the GSM, GPRS, UMTS, LTE, IMS, and WiFi networks. Because YateHSS/HLR is a unified solution, users can be located across any network if, for example, they are registered in the LTE network and paging for a CS service is required.


YateHSSHLR subscriber management networks 2015-07-10.png

YateHSS/HLR new node synchronization

All the YateHSS/HLR servers hold and manage the same subscriber data. A new YateHSS/HLR node added to the network automatically synchronizes to the data contained in the other servers.


YateHSSHLR new node synchronization 2015-11-25.png

YateHSS/HLR LTE roaming to GSM/UMTS

The YateHSS/HLR is a unified subscriber server for GSM/GPRS/UMTS/LTE networks.

It supports both Diameter and SS7 MAP protocols, allowing users roaming in a 2G /3G network to authenticate to the YateHSS/HLR in their home network over SS7 MAP, in case a Diameter agreement is not yet in place.


YateHSSHLR roaming LTE UMTS GSM 2015-11-13.png

Internet of Things

Complete IoT network

The YateBTS, YateUCN, and YateHSS/HLR can be used in a complete network for IoT coverage. GSM/GPRS service as well as LTE can be provided from the same YateUCN core network server.

In remote rural areas, the YateBTS can be used to provide radio coverage, while in urban areas LTE service can be provided from the YateENB.

The SatSite

The YateUCN


YateHSSHLR YateUCN YateBTS IOT 2015-08-10.png

SatSite edge computing

To deploy a fully functional Fog Computing ecosystem, operators can install scalable application servers distributed in each cell site for data analysis and monitoring, without the traffic cluttering the core network. They are geographically distributed and connect to each other to perform a “close to the ground” intermediary layer between IoT devices and the cloud, providing security, low latency and high resilience.

SatSite base stations can redirect the traffic locally to the application server, based on the IMSI specific to the device.

IoT management at the network's edge

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SatSite 2G/4G IoT solution

The YateBTS SatSite can be used to provide GSM/GPRS radio coverage in remote rural areas, while in urban areas LTE service can be provided from the YateENB SatSite.

YateBTS in the age of IoT

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YateHSS/HLR for the M2M market

The YateHSS/HLR provides high capacity for M2M and IoT applications, with lower costs.


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SatSite support for future IoT applications

The SatSite offers 2G/4G LTE networks the flexibility to adapt to the growing number of connected things.

2G networks: to sunset or not to sunset

Driving the Internet of Things with carrier aggregation

SatSite IOT future devices 2015-08-24.png

IoT for public transport

Offering seamless and highly mobile IoT requires high bandwidth and makes few applications practical.

Technologies that can be used include LTE-A carrier aggregation to increase bandwidth, MIMO systems to enhance spectral efficiency, or small cell technology to bring the radio cell closer to the device.

Connecting public transport to the Internet of Things

IOT public transport 2015-08-27.png

Carrier aggregation for IoT

Carrier aggregation, the key concept in LTE-Advanced, allows operators to supply higher bandwidth than in LTE systems, to support connected devices. Carrier aggregation can be used to offer increased bandwidth for IoT, and it can also improve coverage by combining low frequency carriers with high frequency ones.

Driving the Internet of Things with carrier aggregation

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SatSite support self-driving trucks

The GSM/GPRS SatSite supports local IP break-out and allows seamless handover between base stations to facilitate the development of new IoT applications.

The SatSite

SatSite IOT selfdriving truck 2015-08-18.png